International Comparisons of Government Expenditure
How resilient are military expenditures? IMF Staff Papers, 36 3 : Fiscal policy and economic growth: an empirical investigation. Journal of Monetary Economics, 32 3 : Worldwide military expenditures appears to have leveled off.
- International Comparison of R&D Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP;
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Military expenditure: econometric testing of economic and political influences. Military expenditure worldwide: determinants and trends Journal of Public Policy.
Military expenditure the reasons behind the post fall in world military spending. Wage expenditures of central governments. IMF Working Paper. Regional economic outlook: sub-Saharan Africa. Washington D. Fiscal adjustment in IMF-supported programs. Draft Issues Paper, March The agriculture share of total expenditure fluctuated around 1. In , during the food price crisis, all the regions except Europe experienced an increase in the agriculture share of central government expenditure.
The results at regional level are confirmed also at country level. This top 10 was led by Malawi SDG Indicator 2.
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At global level, the AOI consistently declined from 0. During this period, most of the regions remained stably under 0. Even though, in the most recent years, the trends in these regions decreased, and their values are more in line with the other regions. The results to date reflect the fact that not all countries collect, compile and publish Government Expenditure on Agriculture data according to COFOG.
Data coverage may vary by year and country.
Country List Government Spending to GDP
Table 1. Northern America and Europe.
Latin America and the Caribbean. Central America.
South America. Transfers include social security payments.
International Comparison of R&D Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP
It is also notable that middle-income countries spend relatively large amounts on wages and salaries, although Table A2 suggests that the data for the general government may indicate a different pattern. With regard to functional components, a notable difference between high-income countries and other countries is the former group's spending of large amounts on social security and welfare under the category "subsidies and transfers" in the economic components.
The burden of military expenditures for low-income countries exceeds that for middle-income countries, and the central governments in low-income countries spend very small amounts on health and social security. To provide some indication of general government expenditure composition, data for a much-reduced number of countries and years are shown in Table A2. It should be noted, in particular, that the sample of low-income countries includes only three countries. Data for the central government and the general government in Tables A1 and A2 are thus not strictly comparable because the sample countries and sample years differ.
The change in the expenditure composition resulting from extending the coverage from the central government to the general government is shown in Tables A2 and A3, both of which are based on the same set of countries and years.